Via Feasta, from Deirdre de Burca’s speech at the 2004 Desmond Greaves Summer School – Democracy and the EU:
Archibugi states : ” To succinctly describe the democratic deficit problem : policy-making functions are increasingly performed by European institutions and the resulting diminution of national parliamentary control is not offset by democratic controls at the European level. The collusive delegation thesis accepts this diagnosis but adds a crucial element: it maintains that the democratic deficit is not merely a by-product of the transfer of powers to supranational institutions, but also one of the purposes of this transfer. Governments pool their authority in order to loosen domestic political restraints“. Archibugi also quotes Karl Dieter Wolf who argues that states have a priori interest in expanding their autonomy with respect to society. According to Wolf, states used to help each other mainly by perpetuating a threatening external environment, but he suggests that they now tend to achieve the same effect by creating binding intergovernmental arrangements. Now, as then, he argues, “states can co-operate against societies”. As one example of “collusive delegation” Archibugi refers to a section of the detailed history of the European Monetary Union as set out by Kenneth Dyson and Kevin Featherstone “The Road to Maastricht: Negotiating Monetary and Economic Union”.
We have to recognise that as currency devaluation is not an option, downward flexibility in wages and prices is essential to avoid unemployment… [Irish Times]